Managing anxiety and its symptoms during COVID-19
11.05.2020 - Articles, Mental health
Feeling anxious from time to time is a normal part of being human and helps alert us to potentially dangerous situations. However, if your anxiety is severe, chronic (lasting for 6 months or more) or out of proportion with your situation, you may be suffering from an anxiety disorder.
It’s estimated that 264 million people around the world live with an anxiety disorder and 31% of Americans will experience an anxiety disorder at some point in their life. In fact, anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorder within the general population and with the current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic intensifying feelings of uncertainty and fear for many people, healthy anxiety management is more essential now than ever.
In this article we’ll explain the types of anxiety disorders that exist, offer proven tips and tools for managing anxiety yourself, outline some professional anxiety treatment options, and give advice on how to cope with anxiety during COVID-19.
Type of Anxiety Disorders
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), classifies anxiety disorders as those which share features of excessive fear and related behavioural disturbances, and which cause significant social or work-related impairment. These include separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, specific phobia, social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. Obsessive-compulsive disorders and trauma and stressor-related disorders, while in different categories to anxiety disorder, share many of the same features and respond to similar treatment methods. These include obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Anxiety disorders may also occur alongside other conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or eating disorders and when very severe, can lead to self-harm or suicide.
When anxiety reaches a clinical level, it can greatly affect your quality of life and ability to go about your day-to-day activities. In the grips of severe anxiety people may experience physical symptoms that include rapid heart rate, increased blood pressure, shortness of breath, chest pain, dry mouth, diarrhoea, sweating, difficulty swallowing, dizziness, nausea and trembling. There are also secondary effects that include fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension or soreness, and difficulty falling or staying asleep. The good news is that there are numerous clinical treatments that can greatly reduce or even cure the symptoms of severe anxiety as well as many tools for helping you cope with anxiety at home.
What Causes Anxiety?
The causes of anxiety can be complex, and what may trigger an anxiety disorder in one person may not do so in another. However, the following factors may contribute to a person developing an anxiety disorder:
- Trauma in childhood or adulthood.
- Environmental stressors, such as work problems and relationship or family issues.
- Genetics: people who have a family member with anxiety are more likely to develop anxiety themselves. In fact, parents with anxiety have a 30% chance of their child also developing an anxiety disorder.
- Medical reasons, such as the effects of medication, symptoms of a different disease or the stress of a prolonged recovery or intensive surgery.
- Brain chemistry or imbalances in hormones.
- Withdrawal from substances.
10 Anxiety-Management Strategies
- Slow down your breathing
When you’re anxious your breathing gets faster. Try breathing in for a count of three, holding for three, then exhaling for a count of three. Do this for a few minutes.
- Try Progressive Muscle Relaxation
With your eyes closed, slowly tense then release all the muscles in your body, working your way up from your toes to your face. This can help reduce the physical tension of anxiety.
- Practice mindfulness
Staying in the present moment, a skill you can improve through mindfulness or meditation practice, helps you stop obsessing about ‘what if’ and can slow down racing thoughts. Try focusing on the sounds around you or listing all the things you can see that start with a specific letter.
- Eat healthy
Aim to eat a diet full of colourful fruits, green leafy vegetables, wholegrain cereals and healthy proteins. It’s also important to eat at regular times (don’t let yourself get too hungry) and avoid caffeine and alcohol. Processed carbs like sweets or junk food can cause a spike in blood sugar followed by a crash, which can make your anxiety worse. Foods like eggs, avocado and walnuts are beneficial and make sure you’re getting enough magnesium, vitamin B and calcium.
- Stay active
Exercise has been proven to reduce anxiety symptoms, especially when combined with healthy lifestyle changes, and it doesn’t matter whether it’s aerobic or anaerobic. Try a combination of things like walking, swimming, running, weights, gardening or yoga and aim to spend some time in nature whenever you can.
- Connect with others
Anxiety can lead some people to shut themselves off, but human interaction is important for maintaining a healthy mood. With COVID-19 social distancing in place, make time to chat with friends and family via phone or video chat. And when restrictions are lifted, get a hug from a loved one. Physical touch releases oxytocin which increases happiness and reduces stress.
- Do something you enjoy
Spending time on a task that fully engages you can get your mind off worrying thoughts. Many people find colouring beneficial. You could also try preparing a meal, gardening, painting, spending time with animals, dancing, playing an instrument or any other activity that makes you happy or puts you in a state of ‘flow’.
- Schedule worry time
Designate a specific time in your day where you allow yourself to indulge in your worries. Keep it short, 10-15 minutes, and write down your worries or go over them in your head. Try to limit your worry time to this window and if thoughts come up at other times, remind yourself that you’ve got time later to focus on them.
- Challenge your fears
Anxiety can make you over-estimate dangers and underestimate your ability to handle them. Rather than jumping to the worst-case scenario, try to challenge your thinking and consider other outcomes. You can also take small steps to face your fears as learning that your fear isn’t likely to happen, or that you have the means to cope if it does, is the way through anxiety.
- Be kind to yourself
Above all, remember that having anxiety does not make you weak or inferior, and it doesn’t define you. You are not your anxiety. You have a mental health condition that many others also suffer from.
Anxiety Therapy at The Kusnacht Practice
While anxiety may feel debilitating, there are many clinical therapies that have been proven to give patients very good outcomes. Professor Wulf Rössler, world-renowned practitioner of psychiatry at The Kusnacht Practice, says “Many of our clients find CBT very effective for mental well-being. It can be combined with Bio-R ®, which is helpful for correcting imbalances in biochemistry that are associated with anxiety. Our aim is always to identify and treat the underlying causes of any issue such as anxiety. It is reassuring that in many cases it is possible for a client to subsequently lead a happy and fulfilled life.”
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
A form of psychotherapy, CBT aims to help patients recognise and change the harmful thought patterns that are behind their anxiety. Sessions are conducted with a qualified psychiatrist or trained psychotherapist and involve discussion and homework that includes patients practicing the strategies they’ve learnt outside of the therapy room and often keeping a diary of their experiences. Sessions may also include exposure therapy where the patient is gradually and gently exposed to an object or situation to help desensitize them and teach them new ways of thinking.
Biomolecular Restoration (Bio-R®)
In this ground-breaking treatment, micronutrients are used to correct imbalances in biochemistry that are linked to depression and anxiety. Through blood samples, saliva, stool, nutrigenetics and other tests, doctors are able to create a formulation of micronutrients tailored to match the exact requirements of each client. Bio-R® greatly enhances the chances of a lasting recovery from a range of disorders.
This treatment works by exploring strengths rather than weaknesses to improve a patient’s self-esteem, optimism and sense of purpose. Positive Psychology can be used alongside behavioural therapies such as CBT to help people improve a patient’s perceptions and relations with other people. Individuals become more content with their past and present and learn to have hope for the future.
Clinical hypnotherapy results in an altered state of consciousness which feels like deep relaxation. During hypnosis, a trained psychotherapist can communicate with the patient at a subconscious level, helping to address fears and drive meaningful change from within.
Anxiety and Coronavirus
For anxiety sufferers, living in the time of a global pandemic can exacerbate symptoms and make life feel terrifying. It can also make accessing usual support networks, such as therapists, friends or family, more difficult. But there are still things you can do to minimise the stress of this time and give yourself the best chance at reducing symptoms.
Be gentle on yourself
It’s completely normal to feel more anxious at the moment so practice self-compassion and forgive yourself if you’re finding it harder to practice beneficial techniques or stay on top of your thoughts right now.
Limit access to news and social media
While knowing what’s going on in the world may feel like it will help you stay in control, it can actually make you focus on and think about the situation more. This, in turn, can increase your perception of threat. By limiting contact with media, you give yourself a much better chance at managing your anxiety. If you can’t limit your access to media, try to stick to reputable sources such as information put out by your government or the World Health Organisation.
Stop talking about coronavirus
Similarly, endlessly discussing the pandemic with friends and family will only raise your level of worry. Try to steer conversations away from the topic and avoid bringing it up yourself. This will not only help your wellbeing but that of others too!
Make a routine
If you’re working from home, or just spending all your time there, it’s good to normalise this new way of living by establishing a routine. Aim to get up and go to bed at the same time each day, cook meals at regular hours, and take a proper lunch break from work.
Look after your physical health
While it may be harder doing all your normal activities, you can still be mindful of eating healthy, getting enough sleep and exercising where possible. There is an abundance of free workout and yoga videos available online to keep you moving, as well as calming, guided meditations. Also make sure to keep taking any medications you’ve been prescribed.
Stay socially connected
Isolation doesn’t need to extend to virtual contact. Call a friend or arrange an online video call through Zoom or FaceTime. You can even play a game with friends through the Houseparty app.
Mix-up your leisure activities
Doing the same things in the same setting every day can make you feel more anxious about when the situation will change. Try to introduce some variety to prevent boredom. If you’ve been spending most of your free time watching TV, try writing someone a letter, putting together a puzzle, attempting a new recipe, doing some decluttering, reading a book or starting a diary.
Reach out if you need to
If you’re finding yourself unable to cope with feelings of anxiety, reach out to someone you trust or call a local mental health hotline. If you don’t already see a therapist, many are now offering treatments via video and can really help you to feel a little more in control while in isolation.